Packaging – a product of a specific construction whose purpose is to protect the goods or the environment during transport and storage. It often acts as a marketing tool, stimulating with its aesthetic appearance and marketing message (product data, information about the brand, company) to purchase the product. Packaging is therefore often used as a ‚silent vendor’.

Food packaging types and intended use

Types of packaging and their intended usefood packaging The basic classification of the packages shall take into account:

  • pre-packages for individual products, normally used in the retail trade
  • packaging that is the packaging of two or more individual packages, normally used in the transport and storage processes
  • transport packaging being the packaging of bulk products or of unit (aggregate) packaging used in the transport and storage processes.

There are three basic packaging functions in the goods industry:

  • technical – enabling distribution, consumption and protection of the product from external or internal influences
  • economic – including the relation of packaging manufacturing costs to manufacturing costs of goods
  • aesthetic and marketing – which is an aesthetic value of the packaging and is supposed to encourage the purchase of a given product.

Other scientists are divided into the following criteria: protective, logistic, informational and promotional functions.

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Food packaging functions in logistics

Packaging functions in logistics. From a logistics and transport point of view, the following packaging function groups are distinguished:

  • protective – including protection against mechanical, climatic and biotic damage (microorganisms, pests) and losses
  • warehousing – they boil down to facilitating the processes of storage, handling and picking;
  • transport – are most closely related to the optimisation of freight flows and maximum use of the load capacity of means of transport;
  • picking – packaging should facilitate the preparation of assortment sets in individual batches of delivery, assuming maximum use of the transport vehicle’s capacity and delivery of the necessary
  • set of goods to the recipient for further sale;
  • information – stimulates picking activities, facilitates sales and is an aid in use;
  • recyclable and classic – includes the reuse or disposal of used packaging.